CpG-B DNA (ODN 2006), Human/ Mouse

Catalog #: HC4039

Quantity: 200 nmol

Availability: In stock

Description: CpG-B DNA (ODN 2006), Human/ Mouse

ODN 2006 is a prototype of the class of CpG-B oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN), also known as 'K'-type ODN, with a full phosphorothioate (PS) backbone. It is particularly effective for activating B cells. The vertebrate immune system has evolved innate immune defense pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that detect unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) motifs within bacterial DNA. Cellular activation by CpG motifs occurs via the Toll signal pathway. The Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9, CD289) appears to be a major component of the CpG-DNA receptor, acting by direct binding to CpG-DNA, which triggers the induction of cell signaling pathways including the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPKs) and NFκB, leading to stimulation of various cells of the immune system. The human TLR9 is expressed in B cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC). Mice also express TLR9 in the myeloid compartment. Optimal sequences for activating TLR9 vary among species. Synthetic ODN contain CpG-DNA motifs mimicking the immunostimulatory effects of bacterial DNA and can, therefore, be used as immunoprotective agents, vaccine adjuvants and anti-allergic agents. CpG ODN also affects immune tolerance and autoimmunity. Different classes of CpG ODN are characterized each with distinct effects on the immune response: CpG-A ('D'-type), CpG-B ('K'-type), and CpG-C.
CpG-B ODN are characterized by a full phosphorothioate backbone with one or more CpG motifs without poly -G motifs. CpG-B ODN are weak inducers of IFN-alpha but are very potent Th1 adjuvants and strong B cell response stimulators. CpG-B ODN promote survival, activation, and maturation of both monocyte derived dendritic cells and PDC.
The prototype sequence of CpG-B is the 24-mer ODN 2006 that is able to modulate the immune response in both human and mice. It has the following sequence: 5'-tcgtcgttttgtcgttttgtcgtt-3'. Regular letters represent PS linkage and bold letters represent CpG dinucleotides.

Specifications

Catalog number HC4039
Product type LPS and ligands
Quantity 200 nmol
Species Human/Mouse
Formulation Approximately 200 nmol lyophilized, purified 24-mer CpG ODN. The exact amount is indicated on the label. Endotoxin levels are undetectable. Reconstitute the vial by pipetting distilled or deionized water, volume depending on the concentration to be used.
Use It is recommended that users test the reagent and determine their own optimal concentrations.
Application Functional studies
Application Notes FS: CpG-B DNA can be used in biological assays in vitro to activate cells. Furthermore, CpG-B DNA can be used as an immune modulating agent. For in vitro stimulation, 0.05 to 3 μM can be used.
Storage and stability Lyophilized product should be stored at 4 °C. Store stock solution in aliquots at -20 °C. Repeated freeze and thaw cycles will cause loss of activity. Under recommended storage conditions, product is stable for one year.
References 1. Krieg, A; CpG motifs in bacterial DNA and their immune effects. Annu Rev Immunol 2002, 20: 709
2. Vollmer, J et al; Characterization of three CpG oligodeoxynucleotide classes with distinct immunostimulatory activities. Eur J Immunol 2004, 34: 251
3. Wang, J et al; CpG-independent synergistic induction of beta-chemokines and a dendritic cell phenotype by orthophosphorothioate ODN and GM-CSF in elutriated human primary monocytes. J Immunol 2005, 174: 6113
4. Heidt, S et al; Intravenous immunoglobulin preparations have no direct effect on B cell proliferation and immunoglobulin production. Clin Exp Immunol 2009, 158:99
5. Capolunghi, F et al; Pharmacological inhibition of TLR9 activation blocks autoantibody production in human B cells from SLE patients. Rheumatology 2010, 49:2281
6. Saxena, M et al; CpG Protects Human Monocytic Cells against HIV-Vpr–Induced Apoptosis by Cellular Inhibitor of Apoptosis-2 through the Calcium-Activated JNK Pathway in a TLR9-Independent Manner. J Immunol 2011, 187:5865
7. Tadema, H et al; Bacterial DNA motifs trigger ANCA production in ANCA-associated vasculitis in remission. Rheumatology 2011, 50:689
8. Tadema, H et al; Increased Expression of Toll-Like Receptors by Monocytes and Natural Killer Cells in ANCA-Associated Vasculitis, PLoSOne 2011, 6: e24315
9. Rahim, M et al; Ly49Q Positively Regulates Type I IFN Production by Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells in an Immunoreceptor Tyrosine–Based Inhibitory Motif–Dependent Manner. J Immunol 2013, 190:3994
10. Lepse, N et al; Altered B cell balance, but unaffected B cell capacity to limit monocyte activation in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis in remission. Rheumatology 2014, 53:1683
Precautions For research use only. Not for use in or on humans or animals or for diagnostics. It is the responsibility of the user to comply with all local/state and Federal rules in the use of this product. Hycult Biotech is not responsible for any patent infringements that might result with the use of or derivation of this product.
Disease Infectious diseases