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CpG-B DNA, Rat

Catalog #: HC4040

Quantity: 200 nmol

Availability: In stock

Description: CpG-B DNA, Rat

The rat CpG-B DNA belongs to the class of CpG-B oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN), also known as 'K'-type ODN, with a full phosphorothioate (PS) backbone. It is particularly effective for activating B cells. The vertebrate immune system has evolved innate immune defense pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that detect unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) motifs within bacterial DNA. Cellular activation by CpG motifs occurs via the Toll signal pathway. The Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9, CD289) appears to be a major component of the CpG-DNA receptor, acting by direct binding to CpG-DNA, which triggers the induction of cell signaling pathways including the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPKs) and NFκB, leading to stimulation of various cells of the immune system. The human TLR9 is expressed in B cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC). Mice also express TLR9 in the myeloid compartment. Optimal sequences for activating TLR9 vary among species. Synthetic ODN contain CpG-DNA motifs mimicking the immunostimulatory effects of bacterial DNA and can, therefore, be used as immunoprotective agents, vaccine adjuvants and anti-allergic agents. CpG ODN also affects immune tolerance and autoimmunity. Different classes of CpG ODN are characterized each with distinct effects on the immune response: CpG-A ('D'-type), CpG-B ('K'-type), and CpG-C. CpG-B ODN are characterized by a full phosphorothioate backbone with one or more CpG motifs without poly -G motifs. CpG-B ODN are weak inducers of IFN-alpha but are very potent Th1 adjuvants and strong B cell response stimulators. CpG-B ODN promote survival, activation, and maturation of both monocyte derived dendritic cells and PDC. This CpG-B is a 22-mer that is able to modulate the immune response in rat. It has the following sequence: 5'-tgactgtgaacgttcgagatga-3'. Regular letters represent phosphorothioate linkage and bold letters represent CpG dinucleotides.

Specifications

Catalog number HC4040
Product type LPS and ligands
Quantity 200 nmol
Species Rat
Formulation Approximately 200 nmol lyophilized, purified 22-mer CpG ODN. The exact amount is indicated on the label. Endotoxin levels are undetectable. Reconstitute the vial by injection of distilled or deionized water, volume depending on the concentration to be used.
Use For in vitro stimulation, 0.05 to 3 µM can be used. It is recommended that users test the reagent and determine their own optimal concentrations.
Storage and stability Lyophilized product should be stored at 4 °C. Store stock solution in aliquots at -20 °C. Repeated freeze and thaw cycles will cause loss of activity. Under recommended storage conditions, product is stable for one year.
References 1. Krieg, A; CpG motifs in bacterial DNA and their immune effects. Annu Rev Immunol 2002, 20: 709
2. Vollmer, J et al; Characterization of three CpG oligodeoxynucleotide classes with distinct immunostimulatory activities. Eur J Immunol 2004, 34: 251
3. Latz, E et al; TLR9 signals after translocating from the ER to CpG DNA in the lysosome. Nat Immunol 2004, 5: 190
4.Carpentier, A et al; Successful treatment of intracranial gliomas in rat by oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs. Clin Cancer Res 2000, 6: 2469
Precautions For research use only. Not for use in or on humans or animals or for diagnostics. It is the responsibility of the user to comply with all local/state and Federal rules in the use of this product. Hycult Biotech is not responsible for any patent infringements that might result with the use of or derivation of this product.
Disease Infectious diseases