Description: HNP1-3, Human, mAb D21
Azurophilic granules of neutrophils contain Human Neutrophil Peptide (HNP) 1-4, which are highly homologous. The three principal human defensins, HNP 1-3, are unique to neutrophils and- account for about 99% of the total defensin content of these cells. Defensins HNP 1-3 are almost exclusively expressed in neutrophils, therefore it is considered a neutrophil cell marker. Measured amount of defensins is 3-5 microgram per million human neutrophils. When treated with HNP the outer membrane of Escherichia coli becomes permeable. This permeabilization furthermore coincided with the cessation of RNA, DNA and protein synthesis, and with a decreased bacterial viability Defensins are relatively resistant to proteolysis, low pH and boiling. Activation of neutrophils leads to rapid release of HNP. HNP can be measured in plasma and other body fluids during infection and inflammation. In normal plasma very low levels of HNP are present. Activation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in plasma, as occurs during clotting of blood, leads to a rapid release of HNP.
Anti HNP 1-3 antibody clone D21 recognizes natural HNP 1-3 in biological solutions by means of ELISA in tissue sections and leukocyte smears fixed with ethanol, methanol/acetone or paraformaldehyde, in flow cytometry analysis of human neutrophils stained by cell permeabilization method and in Western-blotting (non-reduced). Furthermore the antibody is cross reactive with Rhesus monkey and cynomolgous macaques HNP1-3.
|Product type||Monoclonal antibodies|
|Formulation||1 ml (100 µg/ml) 0.2 µm filtered antibody solution in PBS, containing 0.1% bovine serum albumin.|
|Application||F, FC, FS, IA, IF, IP, P, W|
|Application Notes||F: FCS blocked sections were incubated with D21 antibody 1:500
FC: Cells were fixed and permeabilized, incubation with primary antibody for 30 min.
FS: In vitro:0.5ug/ml, 30min -24h at 37 °C
IF: 1% formaldehyde fixed cells were stained with 5 µl Ab/million cells for 15 min.
P: Formalin fixed sections were deparaffinized and blocked with 1% hydrogen peroxide and serum or 5%BSA
W: Blots blocked with 10% serum for 30'. Primary antibody 2h RT 1:100 in TBS/0.01% tween-20
|Use||For immunohistology, flow cytometry and Western blotting dilutions to be used depend on detection system applied. It is recommended that users test the reagent and determine their own optimal dilutions. The typical starting working dilution is 1:10.|
|Cross reactivity||Monkey - Yes|
|References||1. Lehrer, R et al; Defensins : antimicrobial and cytotoxic peptides of mammalian cells. Ann Rev Immunol 1993, 11 : 105
2. Zhang, L et al; Contribution of human alpha-Defensin-1, -2 and-3 to the anti-HIV-1 activity of CD8 antiviral factor. Science 2002, 298: 995
3. Trabattoni, D et al; Human ; defensin in HIV-exposed but uninfected individuals. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2004, 35: .455
4. Chang, T et al; CAF-mediated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcriptional inhibition is distinct form;-Defensin-1 HIV inhibition. J Vir 2003, 77: 6777
5. Zaharatos, G et al; ;-Defensins released into stimulated CD8+ T-cell supernatants are likely Derived from residual granulocytes within the irradiated allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells used as feeder. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2004, 35: 993
6. Tao, R et al;; Salivary antimicrobial peptide expression and dental caries experience in children. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2005, 49:: 3883
7. Gow, J et al; Agene signature for post-infectious chronic fatigue syndrome. BMC medical genomics 2009, 2:38
8. Matthijsen, R et al; Enterocyte shedding and epithelial lining repair following ischemia of the human small intestine attenuate inflammation. Plos One, 2009, 4: 9
9. Rodriguez-Garcia, M et al; Increased ;-defensins 1-3 production by dendritic cells in HIV-infected individuals is associated with slower disease progression. Plos One 2010, 2: e9436
|Storage and stability||Product should be stored at 4 °C. Under recommended storage conditions, product is stable for one year.|
|Precautions||For research use only. Not for use in or on humans or animals or for diagnostics. It is the responsibility of the user to comply with all local/state and Federal rules in the use of this product. Hycult Biotech is not responsible for any patent infringements that might result with the use of or derivation of this product.|
|Disease||Autoimmunity, Infectious diseases|