||> 200 µg
||1 ml (> 200 μg/ml) culture medium with a low endotoxin level containing 0.02% sodium azide.
||F, FC, IA, IF, W
||IA: For detection, 1.2 μg/ml antibody in PBS was added for 1 hr at 37 °C on LTA coated plates (Ref. 2,3,8).
IF: 60’in PBS/0.02%BSA/0.02% saponin (ref 4)
W: A reduced or native sample treatment and run on 15% SDS-Page. Blot was incubated o/n at 4°C with a 1/1000 dilution .The band size is ~17 kDa (Ref.6,7).
||Dilutions to be used depend on detection system applied. It is recommended that users test the reagent and determine their own optimal dilutions. The typical starting working dilution is 1:50.
||Microbial mixture of Streptococcus sobrims HG961, HG962, HG970, and HG977 (Ref. 1)
||Culture medium of Gram-positive bacteria.
||Culture medium of eukaryotic cells
||1. Hogg,S et al; Occurrence of lipotechoic acid in oral streptococci. Int. journal of systematic bacteriology 1997, 47:62
2. Langevelde, P et al; Antibiotic-induced release of lipoteichoic acid and peptidoglycan from Staphylococcus aureus: Quantitative measurements and biological reactivities. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1998, 42: 3073
3. Langevelde, P et al; Antibiotic-induced cell wall fragments of Staphylococcus aureus increase endothelial chemokine secretion and adhesiveness for granulocytes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1999, 43: 2984
4. Triantafilou, M et al; Lipoteichoic acid and toll-like receptor 2 internalization and targeting to the golgi are lipid raft-dependent. J Biol Chem 2004, 279: 40882
5. Henneke, P et al; Role of lipoteichoic acid in the phagocyte response to group B Streptococcus. J Immunol 2005, 174: 6449
6. Grundling, A et al. Synthesis of glycerol phosphate lipoteichoic acid in Staphylococcus aureus. PNAS 2007, 104:8478
7. Jimenez-Dalmaroni, M et al. Soluble CD36 ectodomain binds negatively charged diacylglycerol ligands and acts as a co-receptor for TLR2. Plos One 2009, 4:7411
8. Yajima, A et al. Contribution of phosphoglucosamine mutase to the resistance of Streptococcus gordonii DL1 to polymorphonuclear leukocyte killing. FEMS Microbiol lett 2009, 297: 196
9. Hashimoto, Y et al. Identification of LTA as a ligand for draper in the phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus by Drosophila hemocytes. I.Immunol 2009, 183:7451
10. Hirose, Y et al. Lipoteichoic acids on lactobacillus platarum cell surfaces correlate with induction of interleukin-12p40 production. Microbiol immunol 2010, 54:143
11. Wormann, M.E. et al. Enzymatic activities and functional interdependencies of Bacillus subtilis lipoteichoic acid synthesis enzymes. Molecular Microbiology 2011, 79: 566
12. Palomino, M.M. et al Osmotic stress adaptation in Lactobacillus casei BL23 leads to structural changes in the cell wall polymer lipoteichoic acid. Microbiology 2013, 159:2416
13. Tadmor, K et al. Listeria Monocytogenes MDR transporters are involved in LTA synthesis and triggering innate immunity during infection. Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology 2014, 4:16
|Storage and stability
||Product should be stored at 4 °C. Under recommended storage conditions, product is stable for one year.
||For research use only. Not for use in or on humans or animals or for diagnostics. It is the responsibility of the user to comply with all local/state and Federal rules in the use of this product. Hycult Biotech is not responsible for any patent infringements that might result with the use of or derivation of this product.