Description: Lipopolysaccharide Core, mAb WN1 222-5, immuno assay antibody
During life, humans as well as other vertebrates, are often exposed to LPS, for instance by enterobacteria. While growing, enterobacteria releases small amounts of endotoxins. Predominant part of the endotoxins stay on the cell wall until the bacterium disintegrates. Endotoxins are heat stable, so even boiling the infected material for 30 minutes will not denature it. Watery diarrhea is caused by released LPS that interacts with the digestive track intestine. Cells and tissue can be destroyed by the LPS resulting in inflammation. Furthermore, LPS is a causal factor of NEC (necrotizing enterocolitis), a disorder found mostly in newborn infants. If LPS gains entry to the bloodstream, it can bind the host cells, such as macrophages. LPS responses are complicated and involve complexes of LPS-binding protein (LBP), soluble and/or membrane bound CD14 and Toll like receptor 4 ( TLR4). LBP is a serum protein that catalyzes LPS recognition by CD14. Recognition of LPS triggers a cascade of adverse systemic responses and organ failure (septic shock).
|Product type||Monoclonal antibodies|
|Formulation||0.5 mg of 0.2 μm filtered protein G purified antibody solution in PBS with a concentration of at least 0.5 mg/ml (exact concentration is indicated on the label).|
|Application||FS, IA, P, W|
|Application Notes||W: A non-reduced sample treatment and SDS-PAGE was used (Ref. 1 and 5).
IHC-P: Antigen retrieval was performed by heating sections in 1x DIVA Decloaker reagent. As positive control gut or lymph node of SIV-infected rhesus macaques was used and as negative control gut or lymph node of non-SIV-infected rhesus macaques (Ref.6).
|Use||Dilutions to be used depend on detection system applied. It is recommended that users test the reagent and determine their own optimal dilutions. The typical starting working dilution is 1:50.|
|Immunogen||10E8 heat-killed bacteria|
|Positive Control||LPS E.coli|
|Negative Control||Normal lymph node (non-infected)|
|References||1. Di Padova, FE et al; Identification of widely cross-reactive and cross-protective anti-LPS core monoclonal antibodies (Mabs). Infect Immun 1993, 61:3863 2. Bahrami, S et al; Monoclonal antibody to endotoxin attenuates hemorrhage-induced lung injury and mortality in rats. Crit Care Med 1997, 25: 1030 3. Pollack, M et al; Dual effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antibodies on cellular uptake of LPS and LPS-induced proinflammatory functions. J Immunol 1997, 151: 3519 4. Müller-Loennies, S et al; Identification of a cross-reactive epitope widely present in lipopolysaccharide from enterobacteria and recognized by the cross protective monoclonal antibody WN1 222-5. J Biol Chem 2003, 278: 25618 5. Tsuneyoshi, N et al; The functional and structural properties of MD-2 required for lipopolysaccharide binding are absent in MD-1. J Immunol 2005, 174: 340 6. Estes, J et al; Damaged intestinal epithelial integrity linked to microbial translocation in pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus infections. PLOS pathogens 2010, 6: e1001052 7. Wang, A et al; Anti-LPS Test Strip for the Detection of Food Contaminated with Salmonella and E. coli. Microbial Biochem Technol 2011, 3:2 8. Barclay, G et al; Monoclonal Antibodies to Endotoxin Core Segregate into Families of Specificity and Cross-Reactivity to Lipopolysaccharides in ELISA by Correlation Cluster Analysis. 9. Cosgrove, C et al; Early and nonreversible decrease of CD161++/MAIT cells in HIV infection. Blood 2013, 121: 951 10. Ruan, X et al. In Vitro O-Antigen Ligase Assay. Methods Mol Biol 2013, 1022: 185 11. Belcher, J et a; Heme triggers TLR4 signaling leading to endothelial cell activation and vaso-occlusion in murine sickle cell disease. Blood 2014, 123: 377|
|Storage and stability||Product should be stored at 4 °C. Under recommended storage conditions, product is stable for at least one year. The exact expiry date is indicated on the label|
|Precautions||For research use only. Not for use in or on humans or animals or for diagnostics. It is the responsibility of the user to comply with all local/state and federal rules in the use of this product. Hycult Biotech is not responsible for any patent infringements that might result from the use or derivation of this product.|