Coagulation factor XII: from coagulation to inflammation
Coagulation factor XII (CFXII), also known as Hageman factor, is a serine protease that is part of the coagulation cascade. The coagulation pathway is essential for both clot formation and excessive bleeding. There are two pathways that mediate activation of the coagulation cascade: 1. contact factor pathway 2. tissue factor pathway.
Deficiency of CFXII is related with an autosomal recessive disorder that is totally asymptomatic and does not cause excessive bleeding. A paper from 2005 therefore suggests that CFXII could be essential for thrombus formation, identifying it as a novel target for antithrombotic therapy.
Besides coagulation, CFXII is also activated during inflammation and further regulates the fibrinolysis and kinin systems. Recent articles have additionally shown the relationship between CFXII and lung inflammation, anaphylaxis and even Alzheimer’s disease. Taken together, this makes CFXII not only relevant for cardiovascular research but an important metabolic marker that interacts with a variety of pathways.