May 13, 2016 6:55:37 AM
Two new Calprotectin ELISA's have been released for quantitative determination of Calprotectin: HK382 & HK379.Read More
May 13, 2016 2:42:34 AM
The activation of the lectin complement pathways in mice can now be measured with the new Hycult Biotech Assays HIT420 and HIT421.
The innate immune system is important in the first defense against foreign pathogens. A major component of this response is the complement system. Complement activation proceeds in a sequential fashion through the proteolytic cleavage of a series of proteins leading to the generation of activated products that mediate various biological activities through their interaction with specific cellular receptors and other serum proteins. The three pathways, designated classical, lectin and alternative pathway, converge at a central component into a final common pathway. That is activation of C3 leading to formation of C3a and C3b. This cleavage activates the terminal complement pathway leading to eventually the formation of the terminal C5b-9 complement complex (TCC).
The complement pathway assays are a new alternative for the AP50 and CH50 tests, that are more cumbersome and variable due to the fact that the test is performed with sheep erythrocytes. The mouse pathway Assays are easy to use and specific for its pathway by making use of a combination of specialized coatings and buffers. Complement deficiencies or other defects in the complement system can easily be screened by running this assay.
Oct 21, 2015 7:28:32 AM
Basophils, eosinophils and neutrophils are the three cell types that belong to the granulocytes. Granulocytes are a type of white blood cells characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm. The nucleus shaped into the usual three lobes are typical for a granulocyte. They are released by bone marrow under the influence of complement through a process called granulopoiesis. Activation of granulocytes play a central role in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases and are an important clinical hallmark for acute inflammation, sepsis and allergic conditions. Granulocytes form the first line of defense to many pathogens by releasing antimicrobial peptide.Read More
Sep 25, 2015 8:43:22 AM
The intestinal barrier is a functional entity separating the gut lumen from the inner host, and consisting of mechanical elements (mucus, epithelial layer), humoral elements (defensins, IgA), immunological elements (lymphocytes, innate immune cells), muscular and neurological elements.Intestinal permeability is a functional feature of the intestinal barrier function.Read More
Sep 23, 2015 8:49:50 AM
Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP) is a biomarker with multiple clinical and basic applications. It has long been used as a cytochemical marker to identify hairy cell leukemia cells and as a marker for differentiated cells of monocyte lineage including macrophages (MΦ), osteoclasts (OC), and dendritic cells (DC).Read More
Feb 23, 2015 8:21:53 AM
Carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) is a well-characterized glycoxidation product that accumulates in tissues with age, and its rate of accumulation is accelerated in diabetes.Read More
Feb 23, 2015 8:01:24 AM
The disadvantage of most complement biomarkers is their short half-life, making reliable sample collection and measurements difficult. Unlike other C3 fragments, C3c does not bind to other structures, like pathogens, cell surface (receptors) and other plasma proteins. Therefore, C3c is a stable complement biomarker which will appear in the fluid phase only, without interference of other C3 based products.Read More
Jan 8, 2015 10:58:56 AM
Celiac disease is an immune reaction to eating gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley and rye. Eating gluten triggers an immune response in the small intestine.Read More
Jan 8, 2015 10:58:56 AM
Non-invasive serum amyloid A (SAA) measurement for accurate prediction of surgical intervention in severe necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)
NEC is the most severe gastrointestinal disorder in neonates, affecting predominantly premature infants. In case of perforation or severe clinical deterioration on medical treatment, resection of affected bowel is often the treatment of choice. This group carries the highest modality and it is therefore essential to detect these severe cases on an early time point.
Various plasma biomarkers have been described to correlate with the severity of NEC, including SAA, Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP), E-selectin, C5a and IL-6. Non-invasive measurement of NEC has only be described for I-FABP; SAA could also be a good candidate.
SAA is an acute phase reactant and has been found to be elevated in many inflammatory states. The best known indicator of inflammation is C-reactive protein (CRP). However, SAA rises earlier and more sharply than CRP. In contrast to CRP, SAA presents the same trend in viral as well as bacterial infections. SAA increases dramatically during acute inflammation and may reach levels 1000-fold higher than normal.
This study shows that urinary levels of SAA are significantly elevated in neonates with severe NEC defined as operative, fatal or stage III NEC compared with those with mild NEC, defined as medical stage II NEC. The current study shows that early urinary SAA measurement correlates well with the clinical decision to perform surgery at an early time point. Analyses of other inflammatory markers (C3a, C5a, I-FABP, Calprotectin) showed no statistical differences between mild and severe NEC.
Reference: Kostan W. Reisinger et al. PLOS One 2014, 9,e90834
|SAA, Human, ELISA kit||2 x 96 det.||HK333-02|
|SAA-1, Human, mAb Reu86.1||0.5 mg||HM2100-IA|
|SAA-1, Human, mAb Reu86.5||0.5 mg||HM2101-IA|
|I-FABP, Rat, Recombinant (E.Coli-Der)||50 µg||HC3101|
|I-FABP, Human, ELISA kit||2 x 96 det.||HK406-02|
|I-FABP, Human, pAb||100 µg||HP9020|
|C3a, Human, ELISA kit||2 x 96 det.||HK354-02|
|C5a, Human, ELISA kit||2 x 96 det.||HK349-02|
Dec 9, 2014 10:59:10 AM
MGO Competitive ELISA (Cat.# HIT503)
Abnormalities in metabolism such as hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia affect billions of individuals worldwide. Recent data suggest an important role of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and advanced lipoxidation endproducts (ALEs) in the risk for vascular complications in people with metabolic abnormalities. The group of AGEs/ALEs is a heterogeneous family of unavoidable by-products which are formed by reactive metabolic intermediates derived from glucose and from lipid oxidation with the involvement of oxidative stress. Because of the involvement of oxidative stress in the formation of AGEs/ALEs, these compounds are implicated in the development of age-related diseases such as diabetes and Alzheimer disease and are associated with vascular disease such as atherosclerosis. Thus, increased formation of AGEs/ALEs is a core defect derived from abnormalities in both glucose- and lipid-metabolism which can lead to complications.
Much of recent research about the mechanisms of AGEs which are involved in the pathogenesis of vascular complications has focussed on AGE-induced cross-linking of matrix proteins and/or interactions of AGEs with specific receptors such as RAGE. Recent work indicates that also an intracellular formation of AGEs is of great importance for the development of diseases.
Of importance for the fast intracellular AGE formation are glycolytic intermediates such as the dicarbonyl compounds. Among these reactive compounds, methylglyoxal (MGO) is believed to be the most potent glycating agent in the body.
MGO is mainly formed by conversion of the trioses glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and dihydroxy-acetone-phosphate and is detoxified by the conversion to D-lactate, catalysed in the cytosol of all cells by glyoxalase I (GLO1) and II and reduced glutathione. MGO reacts primarily with arginine residues to form the non-fluorescent AGE 5-hydro-5-methylimidazolone (MG-H1) as a major AGE quantitatively and to argpyrimidine and to tetrahydropyrimidine. In accordance with the important role of MGO in AGE formation, over-expression of GLO1 in endothelial cells and in an animal model of diabetes reduced the formation of AGEs and in a patient with a GLO1 deficiency marked increased levels of AGEs have been demonstrated.
Increased levels of MGO and MGO-induced AGEs are found in association with insulin resistance, hypertension and in atherosclerotic lesions. Moreover, MGO targets specific mitochondrial proteins accompanied by an increase in the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). MGO-induced ROS production may be an initial event in the pathogenesis of complications. Most importantly, GLO1 overexpression also enhances lifespan in C. elegans, supporting that MGO is involved in ageing. Thus, the above mentioned studies strongly suggest that MGO is a potent glycating agent in the body and is involved in the development of vascular disease.
Schalkwijk, C. Maastricht University