HNP-2, Human, Peptide
Catalog #: HC2135
Quantity: 50 µg
The family of defensins are antimicrobial peptides found in many species. They have antibiotic, antifungal and antiviral activity and have a role in neutrophil function, chemotaxis, immunomodulation, cytotoxicity and NK cell activity. Defensins are small 2-6 KDa beta-sheet cationic peptides with intramolecular disulfide bonds. Mammalian defensins are divided into α-, β-, and θ-subtypes. Initially human alpha defensin peptides were identified in neuthrophils leading to the name human neuthrophil peptides (HNP). There are six α-defensins: human neutrophil peptides 1–4 (HNP-1–4) and human defensins 4 and 5 (HD-5, HD-6). HNP-1–3 have primary structures that only differ by a single residue at the N-terminus. HNP1-3 are primarily found in azurophilic granules and comprise up to 99% of the total defensin content of the neutrophils. HNP-1, HNP-2 and HNP-3 are encoded by two genes DEFA1 and DEFA3 localized to chromosome 8. DEFA1 and DEFA3 encode identical peptides except the conversion of the first amino acid from alanine in HNP-1 to aspartic acid in HNP-3; HNP-2 represent N-terminally truncated iso-form lacking the first amino acid. Activation of neutrophils leads to rapid release of HNP, which can be measured in plasma and other body fluids during infection and inflammation. The main function of defensins is disruption of membrane integrity and function leading to lysis of the microorganism. The involvement of defensins in phagocytosis, macrophage and neuthrophil activation, interaction with complement, immunomodulation through changes in cytokine production implicate a strong role in primary innate response against microbial invasion. The interaction of HNP-2 with the negatively charged lipids of the microbial membrane is initiated by the net charge of the peptide of +3 at pH7. The HNP-2 peptide has the following sequence: CYCRIPACIAGERRYGTCIYQGRLWAFCC and accessory disulfide bridges.
|Alias||HNP-2, Neutrophil alpha defensin 2|
|Formulation||Lyophilized product in PBS, containing 50 μg HNP-2. We recommend to reconstitute the peptide with distilled or de-ionized water or small percentage organic solvent (eg DMSO) dependent on the intended application of the peptide (Caution: vial is under vacuum).|
|Storage and stability||Lyophilized product should be stored at -20°C. Store stock solution in aliquots at –20°C. Repeated freeze and thaw cycles will cause loss of activity. Lyophilized the product is stable for at least 6 months, reconstituted and stored at -20°C, the product is stable for 1 month. The exact expiry date is indicated on the label.|
|Precautions||For research use only. Not for use in or on humans or animals or for diagnostics. It is the responsibility of the user to comply with all local/state and federal rules in the use of this product. Hycult Biotech is not responsible for any patent infringements that might result from the use or derivation of this product.|
|Disease||Autoimmunity, Infectious diseases|
Application Notes:Dilutions to be used depend on detection system applied. It is recommended that users test the reagent and determine their own optimal dilutions. The typical starting working dilution is 1:50. For functional studies, in vitro dilutions have to be optimized in user’s experimental setting.