Humans as well as other vertebrates are often exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), for instance via enterobacteria. LPS responses are mediated via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). TLRs are conserved pattern recognition receptors which recognize and respond to molecules derived from bacterial, viral and fungal pathogens, such as LPS from the outer membrane of Gram negative bacteria. Recognition of LPS occurs largely by the TLR4/MD2/CD14 complex, expressed among others by macrophages and dendritic cells. All immunological activity of LPS is exclusively dependent upon the presence of TLR4 as determined by the usage of the corresponding control cells, where TLR4 is missing. Recognition of LPS triggers a cascade of adverse systemic responses and organ failure (septic shock).

LPS is a key component of the cell wall of gram negative bacteria (S-form LPS). The molecule consist of three structural regions: the O-polysaccharide chain made up of repeating oligosaccharide units, the core oligosaccharide and Lipid A. The latter is responsible for the endotoxic activity of the entire molecule. LPS from wild type bacteria are always a highly heterogeneous mixtures of S-form LPS molecules containing 1 to over 50 repeating oligosaccharide units and contain a varying proportion of R-form molecules. R-form LPS and lipid A, but not S-form LPS, are capable of inducing TNF-α responses also in the absence of CD14. Sand R-form LPS show marked differences in the kinetics of their blood clearance and cellular uptake as well as in the ability to induce oxidative burst in human granulocytes and to activate the host complement system.

Functional Studies 

The application Functional Studies (FS) is a commonly used application for TLR antibodies.

Our antibodies:

– Have low endotoxin: < 24EU/ml

– Are developed and produced in endotoxin free facilities

– Will be delivered in PBS-only formulation

– Are available in bulk amount (mg)

– Are purified available starting from 100µg

LPS Ligands – TLR classified ligands

The LPS ligands in our product range are TLRclassified:

– High purity (>98%)

– LPS lacks any detectable bacterial, (lipo-)protein, DNA, RNA or other TLR-stimulating activity due to its ultra-purified formulation

– In sterile solution

Two antibodies, LPScore (cat.# HM6011) and Lipid A (cat.# HM6009) were used in an experiment with several LPS types. Both antibodies have the capability to recognise several LPS types:

LPS LigandCat.# HM6009HM6011
LPS 1. Serratia Marcescero
LPS 2. P. Aeruginosa type 10+
LPS 3. E.coli O55:B5++
LPS 4. E.coli O41:B4++
LPS 5. E.coli O128:B12++
LPS 6. E.coli O127:B8++
LPS 7. S. Typhosa+++
LPS 8. E.coli O26:B6++++
LPS 9. Salmonella Abortus Equi++
LPS 10. S.enteriditis++
LPS 11. E. coli++++
LPS 12. K.pneumoniae++
LPS 13. P.aeruginosa++++
LPS 14. S.typhimurium

Examples of TLR antibodies

HM1029TLR4/MD2, Mouse, mAb MTS510
HM1054TLR2, Mouse, mAb T2.5
HM2064TLR2, Human, mAb TL2.1
HM2096TLR3, Human, mAb TLR3.7
HM2246TLR4/MD-2, Human, mAb 7E3
Contact us