Bacterial DNA is known to induce acute inflammatory responses. Bacterial DNA acts as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern by virtue of a 20-fold greater frequency of unmethylated CG dinucleotides found in microbial DNA versus vertebrate DNA. Cellular activation by deoxy-cytidylate-phosphate-deoxy-guanylate (CpG)-DNA occurs via the Toll/IL-1R signal pathway. TLR9 appears to be a major component of the CpG-DNA receptor, acting by direct binding to CpG-DNA.
The synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) contain the proper CpG-DNA motif mimicing the immunostimulatory effects of bacterial DNA. The human optimal CpG motif GTCGTT differs from the optimal mouse CpG motif GACGTT. Non CpG-DNA has been shown to compete with CpG-DNA in in vitro stimulation experiments. This mouse CpG is a 20-mer ODN has the following sequence: 5′-tccatgacgttcctgatgct-3′. Regular letters represent phosphorothiorate linkage.
FS: CpG-DNA can be used in biological assays in vitro to activate murine cells. For stimulation in vitro 0.01 to 10 μM can be used.
It is recommended that users test the reagent and determine their own optimal concentrations.