TLR2, Mouse/Human, mAb T2.5

Quantity:
100 µg
Catalog #:
HM1054-100UG

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The monoclonal antibody T2.5 recognizes human Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Toll-like receptors (TLR) are highly conserved throughout evolution and have been implicated in the innate defense to many pathogens. At present, ligands for several of the TLR's, such as TLR2-6,9, have been identified, confirming their role in first line defense against invading microorganism. In mammals, TLRs are identified as type I transmembrane signaling receptors with an extracellular portion containing leucine-rich repeats with pattern recognition capabilities. Pathogen recognition by TLRs provokes rapid activation of innate immunity by inducing proliferation of proinflammatory cytokines and upregulation of costimulatory molecules and eventually toinitiation of adaptive immunity. TLR2 has been identified as a receptor that is central to the innate immune response to lipoproteins of Gram-negative bacteria, several whole Gram-positive bacteria, as well as a receptor for peptidoglycan and lipoteichoic acid and other bacterial cell membrane products. It is suggested that TLR2 is able to recognize such a wide variety of PAMPs (pathogen-specific molecular patterns) by forming heterodimers with other TLRs like e.g. TLR6. TLR2 is essential for recognizing lipopeptides and lipoproteins from several microorganisms and also peptidoglycans derived from gram-positive bacteria. Bacterial species as diverse as mycobacteria, spirochetes, mycoplasma, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae have all been shown to mediate cellular activation via TLR2.
Specifications
Product type Monoclonal antibodies
Quantity 100 µg
Formulation 1 ml (100 μg/ml) 0.2 μm filtered protein G purified antibody solution in PBS, containing 0.1% bovine serum albumin. The endotoxin concentration is < 24 EU/mg, determined with HIT302 LAL Assay.
Application Flow cytometry, Frozen sections, Functional studies, Immuno assays, Immuno fluorescence, Immuno precipitation
Use Dilutions to be used depend on detection system applied. It is recommended that users test the reagent and determine their own optimal dilutions. The typical starting working dilution is 1:50. For functional studies, in vitro dilutions have to be optimized in user’s experimental setting.
Immunogen Mouse TLR2 peptide
Isotype Mouse IgG1
Species Human/Mouse
Cross reactivity Human - Yes
Alias TLR2, CD282, TIL4
Gene name: Tlr2
References 1. Meng, G et al; Antagonistic antibody prevents toll-like receptor 2-driven lethal shock-like syndromes. J Clin Invest 2004, 113: 1473
2. Roura-Mir, C et al; Mycobacterium tuberculosis regulates CD1 antigen presentation pathways through TLR-2. J Immunol 2005, 175: 1758
3. Leemans, J et al; Renal-associated TLR2 mediates ischemia/reperfusion injury in the kidney. J Clin Invest 2005 115: 2894
4. Spiller, S et al; TLR4-induced IFN-γ production increases TLR2 sensitivity and drives Gram-negative sepsis in mice. JEM 2008, 205: 1747
5. Sutmuller, R et al; Toll-like receptor 2 controls expansion and function of regulatory T-cells. J Clin Invest 2006, 116:485
6. Brull, F et al; TLR2 activation is essential to induce a Th1 shift in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by plant stanols and plant sterols. J Biol Chem 2010, 285:2951
7. Guan, Y et al; Human TLRs 10 and 1 share common mechanism of innate immune sensing but not signaling. J Immunol 2010, 184:5094
8. Stribos, E et al; Renal expression of Toll-like receptor 2 and 4: Dynamics in human allograft injury and comparison to rodents. Molecular Immunology 2015, 64: 82
9. Mason, L et al; Borrelia burgdorferi Induces TLR2-Mediated Migration of Activated Dendritic Cells in an Ex Vivo Human Skin Model. PLoS ONE 2016, 11: e0164040
10. Stoppelaar, S et al; Toll-Like Receptor Signalling Is Not Involved in Platelet Response to Streptococcus pneumoniae In Vitro or In Vivo. PLoS ONE 2016, 11: e0156977
Storage and stability Product should be stored at 4 °C. Under recommended storage conditions, product is stable for one year.
Precautions For research use only. Not for use in or on humans or animals or for diagnostics. It is the responsibility of the user to comply with all local/state and federal rules in the use of this product. Hycult Biotech is not responsible for any patent infringements that might result from the use or derivation of this product.
Disease Infectious diseases
Applications
Application: Flow cytometry, Frozen sections, Functional studies, Immuno assays, Immuno fluorescence, Immuno precipitation
Application notes: IHC-F: 6 µm sections were fixed with aceton. Sections were blocked with goat serum and exposed o/n with T2.5.
FC: 4*104 leukocytes/ml were stained for 30 minutes at 4 °C.
FS: mice were injected i.p. with 1 mg T2.5, after 1h incubation mice were challenged;T2.5 5  µg/ml was added to cell culture.
IP: 40 µg cleared protein was incubated with 2 µg T2.5 for 1h at 4 °C.
IA: T2.5 as a detector.
Use: Dilutions to be used depend on detection system applied. It is recommended that users test the reagent and determine their own optimal dilutions. The typical starting working dilution is 1:50. For functional studies, in vitro dilutions have to be optimized in user’s experimental setting.
Positive control: RAW264.7 cells
Negative control: CHO cells
References
References: 1. Meng, G et al; Antagonistic antibody prevents toll-like receptor 2-driven lethal shock-like syndromes. J Clin Invest 2004, 113: 1473
2. Roura-Mir, C et al; Mycobacterium tuberculosis regulates CD1 antigen presentation pathways through TLR-2. J Immunol 2005, 175: 1758
3. Leemans, J et al; Renal-associated TLR2 mediates ischemia/reperfusion injury in the kidney. J Clin Invest 2005 115: 2894
4. Spiller, S et al; TLR4-induced IFN-γ production increases TLR2 sensitivity and drives Gram-negative sepsis in mice. JEM 2008, 205: 1747
5. Sutmuller, R et al; Toll-like receptor 2 controls expansion and function of regulatory T-cells. J Clin Invest 2006, 116:485
6. Brull, F et al; TLR2 activation is essential to induce a Th1 shift in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by plant stanols and plant sterols. J Biol Chem 2010, 285:2951
7. Guan, Y et al; Human TLRs 10 and 1 share common mechanism of innate immune sensing but not signaling. J Immunol 2010, 184:5094
8. Stribos, E et al; Renal expression of Toll-like receptor 2 and 4: Dynamics in human allograft injury and comparison to rodents. Molecular Immunology 2015, 64: 82
9. Mason, L et al; Borrelia burgdorferi Induces TLR2-Mediated Migration of Activated Dendritic Cells in an Ex Vivo Human Skin Model. PLoS ONE 2016, 11: e0164040
10. Stoppelaar, S et al; Toll-Like Receptor Signalling Is Not Involved in Platelet Response to Streptococcus pneumoniae In Vitro or In Vivo. PLoS ONE 2016, 11: e0156977
CoA-TDS HM1000-HM1066
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Protocol