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Catalog # HM2213

VAP-1, Human, mAb 174-5

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The monoclonal antibody 174-5 recognises human Vascular Adhesion Protein-1 (VAP-1), which- is a glycosylated homodimeric membrane protein consisting of two 90 kDa subunits connected by disulfide bonds. It contains- a short N-terminal cytoplasmic tail, a single membrane-spanning domain and a large extracellular part.- A soluble form of VAP-1 (sVAP-1) has been described, which presumably results from the proteolytic cleavage of membrane-bound VAP-1. Structurally VAP-1 belongs to enzymes called semicarbamizide-sensitive amine oxidases, which contain copper as a cofactor. These enzymes deaminate primary amines in a reaction producing hydrogen peroxide, aldehyde, and ammonia.
VAP-1 is present in endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, adipocytes, and in follicular dendritic cells. In endothelial cells the majority of VAP-1 is stored within intracellular granules and translocated to the surface upon inflammation where it regulates leukocyte tissue infiltration. Furthermore, the end-products formed by VAP-1 can also regulate leukocyte migration by signaling effects, have insulin-like effects in energy metabolism, and can cause vascular damage by direct cytotoxicity. Elevated sVAP-1serum- levels have been described in several inflammatory- diseases as well as colorectal cancer. Moreover, diminished insulin secretion appears to increase the concentration of soluble VAP-1 in plasma. Therefore, VAP-1 might be an interesting diagnostic marker as well therapeutic- target for modulating inflammation.The monoclonal antibody 174-5 has been shown to cross-react with rat VAP-1 and to inhibit lymphocyte infiltration in rat liver allograft rejection.

Application
Flow cytometry, Frozen sections, Functional studies, Immuno fluorescence

Application Notes
FC: Antibody 174-5 stains Ax cells stably transfected with VAP-1 cDNA. . As negative control mock transfected cells were used.(Ref.1)
IHC-F:- Tissue sections were fixed in acetonebefore staining with 174-5. As positive control anti-VAP-1 mAb 2D10 was used and as negative control an isotype matched irrelevant mAb. (Ref.1).
FS: Antibody 174-5 inhibits lymphocyte infiltration in liver allograft rejection. . The antibody was administered intravenously at a concentration of 2 mg/kg. A irrelevant isotype-matched antibody served as a negative control. (Ref.1).

Use
For immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry, dilutions to be used depend on detection system applied. It is recommended that users test the reagent and determine their own optimal dilutions. The typical starting working dilution is 1:50. For functional studies, in vitro dilutions have to be optimized in user’s experimental setting.

Positive Control
Ax cells stably transfected with VAP-1 cDNA. (Ref. 1)

Product type
Monoclonal antibodies
Amount
100 µg, 20 µg
Formulation
1 ml (100 µg/ml) 0.2 µm filtered antibody solution in PBS, containing 0.1% bovine serum albumin.
Immunogen
Purified vessels from human peripheral lymph nodes (ref 1)
Isotype
Mouse IgG1
Species
Human
Alias
membrane primary amine oxidase; AOC3; SSAO
Storage and stability
Product should be stored at 4 °C. Under recommended storage conditions, product is stable for at least one year. The exact expiry date is indicated on the label.
Precautions
For research use only. Not for use in or on humans or animals or for diagnostics. It is the responsibility of the user to comply with all local/state and federal rules in the use of this product. Hycult Biotech is not responsible for any patent infringements that might result from the use or derivation of this product.
Disease
Cardiology and metabolism, Nephrology

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