Home \ Antibodies \ iC3b, C3dg, C3d, Human, clone C3-12.2
Catalog # HM2395

iC3b, C3dg, C3d, Human, clone C3-12.2

The antibody clone C3-12.2 recognize complement iC3b, C3dg, and C3d. The recognition domain is determined to CUB-TED. The antibody blocks C3 activation by AP C3-convertase.

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Exploring the Crucial Roles of iC3b, C3dg, and C3d in the Complement System and Immune Response

The complement system is a cornerstone of both innate and adaptive immunity, offering inflammatory and protective responses against pathogenic challenges. This article focuses on the intricate roles of iC3b, C3dg, and C3d, vital fragments in this system.

Complex Activation Pathways and Formation of iC3b, C3dg, and C3d

Consisting of a diverse family of proteins and receptors, the complement system is active in circulation, tissues, and body fluids. It activates through three pathways: classical, initiated by immune complexes; lectin, by surface-bound lectins; and the alternative pathway (AP), by non-protected surfaces. Each pathway produces a C3 convertase, cleaving the central protein C3 into C3b, which then undergoes further processing to form iC3b, C3dg, and ultimately C3d.

The Enzymatic Role of C3 Convertases

C3 and C5 convertases are enzymatic complexes that enhance the complement system’s activity, leading to the formation of the cytolytic membrane attack complex (MAC). The synthesis of C3 is tissue-specific, influenced by various stimulants. Upon cleavage, C3 yields anaphylotoxin C3a and C3b, which is crucial in initiating the terminal complement pathway and the formation of C5 convertase.

The Abundance and Functionality of C3 and Its Fragments

C3, with a molecular weight of approximately 185 kDa, is the most abundant protein in the complement system. Produced primarily by the liver, but also by macrophages, neutrophils, and other cells, C3 acts swiftly and effectively in response to pathogens. Defects in C3 can lead to recurrent infections or autoimmune diseases. C3 deficiency, though rare, has significant clinical implications, including recurrent infections and impaired immune cell development. Polymorphisms in C3 have been linked to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS).

The Importance of iC3b, C3dg, and C3d in Immune Regulation and Disease

Beyond pathogen clearance, C3 assists in the removal of circulating immune complexes, enhancing macrophages’ phagocytic capacity. Dysfunctions in this process can lead to autoimmune diseases and tissue damage. The fragments iC3b, C3dg, and C3d are particularly significant in this context. They play pivotal roles in immune response regulation and are emerging as important biomarkers in various diseases, reflecting the dynamic nature of immune responses.

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Immuno assays, Western blot

Application Notes
• IA: antibody C3-12.2 was used in a direct ELISA.
• W: the antibody can be used for reduced and non-reduced samples. (Ref.1)

Product type
Monoclonal antibodies
100 µg, 20 µg
0.2 µm filtered in PBS+0.1%BSA+0.02%NaN3
Mixture of the human activated C3 fragments, C3b, iC3b, and C3dg, emulsified in complete Freund’s adjuvant. Subsequently, mice were boosted three times at 2-week intervals with the same amount of
Mouse IgG1
Complement component C3b, iC3b, C3c
Storage and stability
Product should be stored at 4°C. Under recommended storage conditions, product is stable for at least one year.
For research use only. Not for use in or on humans or animals or for diagnostics. It is the responsibility of the user to comply with all local/state and federal rules in the use of this product. Hycult Biotech is not responsible for any patent infringements that might result from the use or derivation of this product.
CoA-TDS Safety Data Sheet

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