Toll-like receptors (TLR) are highly conserved throughout evolution and have been implicated in the innate defense to many pathogens. In Drosophila, toll is required for the anti-fungal response, while the related 18-wheeler is involved in antibacterial defenses. In mammals, TLR identified as type I transmembrane signaling receptors with pattern recognition capabilities, have been implicated in the innate host defense to pathogens. TLR2 has been identified as a receptor that is central to the innate immune response to lipoproteins of Gram-negative bacteria, several whole Gram-positive bacteria, as well as a receptor for peptidoglycan and lipoteichoic acid and other bacterial cell membrane products. A functional interaction between TLR2 and TLR6 in the cellular response to various bacterial products has been discovered. The currently accepted paradigm regards TLR2 as an essential receptor for many eubacterial cell wall components, including lipoproteins and peptidoglycan. Bacterial species as diverse as mycobacteria, spirochetes, mycoplasma, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae have all been shown to mediate cellular activation via TLR2 (CD282). The monoclonal antibody TL2.3 is specific for human TLR2 (CD282). TL2.3 is useful for studies on the role of TLR2 as a pattern recognition receptor in microbial products induced cytokine production by TLR2 bearing cells such as human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The monoclonal antibody TL23 is cross reactive with canine TLR2.
Flow cytometry, Frozen sections, Functional studies, Immuno assays, Immuno fluorescence, Western blot
For immunohistology, flow cytometry and Western blotting, dilutions to be used depend on detection system applied. It is recommended that users test the reagent and determine their own optimal dilutions. The typical starting working dilution is 1:50. For functional studies, in vitro dilutions have to be optimized in user's experimental setting.